Supervenience: (An Attempt at) A Unified Theory of the Universe
The following is a work in progress, not all resources have been reviewed or vetted.
Physics & The Beginning of the Universe
Event: The Big Bang (BB) Time: 13.7 billion years ago  History of the Universe - gravitational waves are hypothesized to arise from cosmic inflation, an expansion just after the Big Bang. (see: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:History_of_the_Universe.svg) Clarification: "The big bang is not like an explosion of matter in otherwise empty space; rather, space itself began with the big bang and carried matter with it as it expanded" Evidence: - The expansion of the Universe: http://ugcs.caltech.edu/~yukimoon/BigBang/BigBang.htm#Expansion http://sps.ch/en/articles/history-of-physics/from-static-to-expanding-models-of-the-universe-4 - Helium and Deuterium Abundance in Universe: http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~yukimoon/BigBang/BigBang.htm#Helium - Cosmic Background Radiation from Big Bang: http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~yukimoon/BigBang/BigBang.htm#Background Essays: - Stephen Hawking http://www.hawking.org.uk/the-beginning-of-time.html Experiments:
Chemistry: The Forming of the Elements
2. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN, primordial nucleosynthesis): Quarks combined to form Hydrogen (and Deuterium, Hydrogen isotope), Helium, Lithium, And Beryllium nuclei (no atoms yet; too hot). Time: ~10 seconds to ~20 minutes (after BB) Evidence: ??? 3. Recombination: +300,000 years, Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, And Beryllium atoms created; lightest of the elements. Evidence: "Echoes" from Cosmic Microwave Background http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_tests_cmb.html 4. Nuclear Fusions: Reference: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/forces/funfor.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_nucleosynthesis -- see Key Reactions An Overview: http://www.haystack.mit.edu/edu/pcr/Astrochemistry/3%20-%20MATTER/nuclear%20synthesis.pdf The Physics and Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium http://www.amazon.com/Physics-Chemistry-Interstellar-Medium/dp/0521533724/ref=sr_1_9?ie=UTF8&qid=1435255247&sr=8-9&keywords=physics+chemistry Experiments:
Abiogenesis: The Emergence of Organic Chemistry & Biology
Overview of Organic Chemistry: http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Ny-Pi/Organic-Chemistry.html A Coherent Unified Theory for "The Origin of Life": http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/AbioticSynthesis.html http://people.chem.duke.edu/~jds/cruise_chem/Exobiology/miller.html http://www.cliffsnotes.com/sciences/biology/biology/the-origin-and-evolution-of-life/origin-of-organic-molecules The Self-Assembly of Organic Molecules and the Origin of Cellular Life http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/events/deamer1.html RNA Self-assembly: Cooperation at the Origins of Life | Niles Lehman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vrpADqF3VBo The Origin of Life - Abiogenesis - Dr. Jack Szostak https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U6QYDdgP9eg "What is Life?: How chemistry becomes biology", Addy Pross http://www.amazon.com/What-Life-chemistry-becomes-biology-ebook/dp/B008RYSKKS/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1435254982&sr=8-2&keywords=the+origins+of+chemistry
Darwinian EvolutionInteractions: http://tolweb.org/Life_on_Earth/1 http://itol.embl.de/itol.cgi (static) Chief Taxanomic Subdivisions and Organ Systems of the Animal Phyla www.mpcfaculty.net/kevin_raskoff/classes/biology22/wall_chart.jpg The Origin of Life (Compiled by John Kimball)
- Abiotic Synthesis of Organic Molecules
- 1. Miller's Experiment
- 2. Molecules from outer space?
- 3. Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents
- 4. Laboratory Synthesis of Nucleobases Under Conditions Mimicking
the Impact of Asteroids or Comets on the Early Earth
- Assembling Polymers
- The First Cell?
- From Unicellular to Multicellular Organisms
- The Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA)?
- Creating Life?
The Nervous System & NeurologyϮ
Ϯ I am taking Neurology to mean the "scientific study of the nervous system," 1680s, from Modern Latin neurologia, from Modern Greek neurologia (1660s) (see etymology of neurology) Hypotheses: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6RbPQG9WTZM The following should be considered as axioms in sequence: - Prokaryotic Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels - action potential sodium and potassium ions channels (repeaters, like alternating current, v. DC) - Synapses, molecular pores - receptors (came first), glutamate receptors (before multi-cellular life) Glutamate transport in wild-type and mutant strans of escherichia coli - neurotransmitters - basic circuits (synapse Other Hypotheses: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=232wtCuLsoI&feature=youtu.be&t=17m00s - Evolutionary Neuroscience (p.45) The Auricularia Hypothesis - Hemichordate Hypothesis - Inversion Hypothesis
- Relevant post I made on facebook